This is a living page, where I will be adding terms as I encounter them. This page will in no way be exhaustive, as I am also learning about privacy through this inquiry. With that being said, I hope that this page can be of some use!

WordDefinitionSourceAdditional Resources
Virtual Private Network (VPN)“Extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.” In other words, it connects your device to a separate server, and makes it look like all your traffic originates from that server instead of your own.Wikipedia
Internet Service Provider (ISP)An ISP is a company that provides services for accessing the Internet.Merriam-Webster
ProtocolIn computing, this is a set of rules that oversee the exchange of data between devices.Merriam-Webster
EncryptionThe process of converting information or data into a code, especially to prevent unauthorized access.Merriam-Webster
HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol (sometimes Hypertext Transport Protocol). It is used on the World Wide Web.W3SchoolsMozilla
HTTPSHypertext Transfer Protocol Secure. This is a widely adopted extension of HTTP used for secure communication over a computer network.WikipediaCloudflare
TLSTransport Layer Security. A cryptographic protocol used to provide communications security over a network. Successor to Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).WikipediaCloudflare
Proxy Server“A proxy server is a server that sits between you and the Internet. It runs every request through a filter, looking up each address in a database of allowed or disallowed sites, and it allows or blocks each request based on its internal database.”Dummies
Onion Routing/Tor“A method for anonymous communications over a wide area network such as the Internet. Onion routing hides the names of the parties that are communicating as well as the data by encrypting the payload in layers, with a different layer for each hop in the route.”PC Mag
AuthenticationThe process of identifying the identity of a user, device, etc.WikipediaNist.gov
CookiesA small file created by a website and stored in the user's computer. Gives websites a way to track user preferences.PC MagMozilla
Permissions/Access RightsPermissions given to a user/application to read, write, and erase files on a system.Nist.govPC Mag
Man-in-the-middle attackA type of cyberattack where the attacker secretly intercepts themselves between two parties that believe they are communicating with each other. The attacker can then change the information as they please, without the other parties becoming aware.WikipediaNist.gov
IP AddressA numerical label assigned to a device connected to a computer network using the Internet.WikipediaMozilla
Domain Name System (DNS)The "phone book" of the internet. A system for converting the names of websites into numeric IP addresses.PC MagCloudflare
Nist.gov
Two Factor Authentication/2-Factor AuthenticationThe use of two (or more, in the case of multifactor authentication) factors to verify the identity of a user, device, etc.Nist.govPC Mag